An Echo of Silence
A Comprehensive Research Study on Early Child Marriage (ECM) in Iran
Persian: Shirazeh Publishing/ 2017
English: Nova publishing, USA -2017
Download PDF in Farsi Download PDF in English
Whilst working on the issue of female genital mutilation in Iran, the author of this book, Kameel Ahmady, also brought a focus to the early marriage of children and high rates of this harmful phenomenon in Iran. He conducted a two-year study on child marriage in the seven provinces of Khorasan Razavi, East Azerbaijan, Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchistan, West Azerbaijan, Hormozgan and Isfahan, drawing on official country statistics. The results of this research have been published in both Farsi and English languages.
According to the religious structure of Iran, maturity for girls begins with the first monthly menstruation, considered as the threshold of transition from childhood to adulthood which happens around age of 9. This physical and biological threshold means being able to marry, regardless of the actual age and ability to govern your marital life. Although early marriage applies to both young girls and boys, in fact the bitter reality of the society indicates that the consequences and effects of the phenomenon of child marriage on girls are far more serious and dangerous.
Undoubtedly, social investment in girls, expanding their social and economic capital and ensuring their access to education and health services is a clear driver towards gender equality to provide for stronger communities; but child marriage does the contrary.
A lack of independent and credible studies on child marriage in Iran, means there is little information and data, but according to the legal adviser of the Iranian Judiciary, the official and state statistics suggest that between 500 to 600 thousand children per year Iran are getting married – and these are only the statistics for marriages that officially registered, without including those outside the formal marriage process. Now, there are around 14,000 child widows in the country, and according to estimates from the United Nations 17 percent of all marriages in Iran are under the age of 18. Further, some men who have more than one spouse in Iran do not register their child marriages, and hide them.
This comprehensive research first attempts to analyse the prevalence of child marriage in Iran with an emphasis on socio-cultural factors that reflect the profound and deep-rooted inequalities which have contributed to the persistence of child marriage in Iran. The scientific reason for doing this research is to explain the evidence and prevalence of this traumatic practice in Iran and to assist government decision makers in focusing on the immediate protection of these children’s human rights.
This book, as an effort to expose and deepen understandings of the issue of child marriage in Iran, has attracted the attention of civil activists, government policymakers and some parliamentary representatives and MPs. It has provided the background to proposals for raising the minimum age for child marriage, amending Article 1041 of the Civil Code.
This proposal was approved by the House of Representatives in an emergency and with a majority of votes, but unanimously rejected by the Majlis Legal and Judicial Commission.
As the only fieldwork study these research findings were predicated on producing civil society advocacy and the need for parliament to amend the law. In the community level the research has raised a wave of public awareness leading to a serious civil society demand for a ban on child marriage and raising the age of marriage from 13 to 16 for girls and from 15 to 18 for boys.
The Nexus between the Temporary Marriage and Early Child Marriages
Feminization of Poverty-The Cause and Consequence of Early Childhood Marriages in Iran
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Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, English version, NOVA Publishing
An Echo of Silence: A Comprehensive Research Study on Early Child Marriage (ECM) in Iran (Social Issues, Justice and Status), Amazon store
An echo of silence: a comprehensive research study on early child marriage (ECM) in Iran / Kameel Ahmady, Princeton University Library
Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, Shirazeh Publishing
Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, Online Bookstore
PDF Summary Link Farsi Version:
PDF Summary Link English Version:
Award ceremony at George Washington University: A Mini United Nations Convenes In Washington, D.C.
Video and TV Interviews (in Farsi):
8th Milan Program, Marriage of Children
Manoto Network: Child Marriage
Interview with Didar News: An Investigation of the Phenomenon of Child Marriage through Culture and Tradition
IranWire: Children are the most important victims of temporary marriage
Media coverage (also in Farsi):
Kameel Ahmady—British-Iranian Anthropologist Arrested in Iran
Endangered scholars: Kameel Ahmady—British-Iranian academic Released in Iran
Scotsman: World needs to shout about scholars silenced by the state
Etemad online: 17% of marriages in the country are underage
Shahrvand Newspaper: Marriage in Childhood, Divorce in adolescence
IRNA: Child marriage, childhood dreams in the adult world
VOA: Childhood spouse in Iran has quadrupled with increased marriage loan
Shargh Newspaper: Most child marriage in Mashhad
Keyhan London: Fear of the Internet as the reason of young girls’ marriage in Iran!
Radio Frda: Increasing the age of marriage for girls and its legal barriers
BBC: World Girl’s Day; Interview with Kameel Ahmady about early marriage for girls in Iran
News Online: Bride Children, Groom Children, Divorced Adolescents / Research on Child Marriage / Khorasan at the top, Isfahan at the bottom
News Online: Most child marriages in Mashhad / 18 million mother-in-law families in Iran
Radiofarda: Early Marriage; Couples Going Home as a Child
Radiofarda: Anecdotes of Immature Brides
Radiofarda: Head of the Welfare Organization: Prevent child marriage
VOA: Warning over high divorce rates and thousands of widows in Iran
ISNA: 17% of marriages for girls under 18 years / 14.000 widows under 18 years in the country
Hrana: Hrana’s report on the convention of child marriage at the Anthropological Society of Tehran University
Bahar News: Early Child Marriage; House on the Water
Hrana: The legitimacy of early child marriage, a form of child abuse
Online News: One Million Children of Wives in Iran and the phenomenon of child molestation
IRNA: We need a comprehensive look at children’s laws
IRNA: Slaughter a child in the slavery of domestic slavery!
IRNA as a Researcher: 35% of Marriages in Khorasan Razavi are for Children
ISNA: “An Echo of Silence” A Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage in Iran
ISNA: Life Game
ISNA: At the age of 13, I was forced to marry with my cousin …
IRNA: The Tragedy of Social Researchers in Iran / Part I
IRNA: Corruption, Rent and Gambling are dragged to the Scientific Society / Part II
DW: There are 14,000 widows in Iran
DW: MP: We have to think of girls who want a husband
Al Arabia: 14,000 widows under 18 in Iran
IRNA: Why doesn’t the Spouse Child Prohibition Bill come to an end?
News: A 6-year-old girl is not a child / We have to think about girls seeking a husband
Shahrvand Newspaper: Trying to amend the law on temporary marriage
Hamshahri Newspaper: Little Girls Saying Goodbye to School
IranWire: Children are the most important victims of temporary marriage
BBC: 24% of Iranian marriages are teenage marriages
Awakening: ignorance that underlies child marriage
Aftab Yazd: Girls’ wages for wages
Entekar Newspaper: Child spouse, widow and prostitute
Aftab-e Yazd’s Report of a controversial clip in which the child is being promoted
Health News: Poverty, a key factor in early child marriage
Safe House: One Million Children spouse in Iran and the phenomenon of child miscarriage (temporary marriage)
Asr-e Iran: 14,000 widowed children under 18 years in the country / 17% girls of marriages in Iran under 18
Awakening: An Echo of Silence: Comprehensive Research on Early Child Marriage in Iran / Kameel Ahmady
Law Newspaper: In some provinces, we are faced with the purchase of childhood
Borna: Marrying a 6-month-old fetus in her mother’s womb!
[Economics: Most child marriage in Mashhad
Shirazeh Publication: Seminar Report on the Causes and Prevalence of Spousal Child Phenomenon
IBNA: Sharing the views of religious leaders to reducing the child marriage
IBNA: There is very little data on child marriage in Iran
Iranian Political Science Association: Spouse Child; Roots, Injuries, and Policymaking
Didar News: Report on Marriage and Divorce of Children in Iran / 14000 Widowed Children in Iran
Meidan: Marriage of girls under the age of 18; 17% of all marriages in the country
Didar News: The girl is the woman of the people!
Kayhan Novin: A social researcher warns of the presence of 14,000 widows in Iran
Imam Ali’s Population: An Echo of Silence: Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage
News Land: Temporary Marriage and Child Marriage are rape of children
Health News: Child Marriage are rape of children
Beautiful Isfahan: House on the water
Hana News: A house on the water
Anna News Agency: Marriage of children under the age of 13 is prohibited
Borna: Girls’ marriages for wages
Ana: Results of First Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage: Child Marriage; Divorce in Adolescence
Didar NEWS: Parliament raise child marriage age and pending to seal of Guardian Council
Fararo: Child marriage, Divorce in Adolescence
Ministry of Co-operation, Labor and Social Welfare: A Review of Child Poverty Prevention Strategies
Behdokht: Seminar on the Causes and Prevalence of Child Abuse
Supporters of Civil Society: Report of the Results of the First Comprehensive Survey on Early Child Marriage in Iran; Child Marriage; Divorce in Adolescence
Shahraara Online: Widowed children in second marriage are also not have the authority to select the second marriage
Un-Childhood: Hrana’s Report on the Conference on Child Marriage at the Anthropological Society of Tehran University
Ettelaat Newspaper: Immature Widows
Iran Global: Child marriage in Iran from the standpoint of statistics
Spadana News: 30% increase of Iranian child marriage within three years