An Echo of Silence

A Comprehensive Research Study on Early Child Marriage (ECM) in Iran

Persian: Shirazeh Publishing/ 2017

English: Nova publishing, USA -2017

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Whilst working on the issue of female genital mutilation in Iran, the author of this book, Kameel Ahmady, also brought a focus to the early marriage of children and high rates of this harmful phenomenon in Iran. He conducted a two-year study on child marriage in the seven provinces of Khorasan Razavi, East Azerbaijan, Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchistan, West Azerbaijan, Hormozgan and Isfahan, drawing on official country statistics. The results of this research have been published in both Farsi and English languages.

According to the religious structure of Iran, maturity for girls begins with the first monthly menstruation, considered as the threshold of transition from childhood to adulthood which happens around age of 9. This physical and biological threshold means being able to marry, regardless of the actual age and ability to govern your marital life. Although early marriage applies to both young girls and boys, in fact the bitter reality of the society indicates that the consequences and effects of the phenomenon of child marriage on girls are far more serious and dangerous.

Undoubtedly, social investment in girls, expanding their social and economic capital and ensuring their access to education and health services is a clear driver towards gender equality to provide for stronger communities; but child marriage does the contrary.

A lack of independent and credible studies on child marriage in Iran, means there is little information and data, but according to the legal adviser of the Iranian Judiciary, the official and state statistics suggest that between 500 to 600 thousand children per year Iran are getting married – and these are only the statistics for marriages that officially registered, without including those outside the formal marriage process. Now, there are around 14,000 child widows in the country, and according to estimates from the United Nations 17 percent of all marriages in Iran are under the age of 18. Further, some men who have more than one spouse in Iran do not register their child marriages, and hide them.

This comprehensive research first attempts to analyse the prevalence of child marriage in Iran with an emphasis on socio-cultural factors that reflect the profound and deep-rooted inequalities which have contributed to the persistence of child marriage in Iran. The scientific reason for doing this research is to explain the evidence and prevalence of this traumatic practice in Iran and to assist government decision makers in focusing on the immediate protection of these children’s human rights.

This book, as an effort to expose and deepen understandings of the issue of child marriage in Iran, has attracted the attention of civil activists, government policymakers and some parliamentary representatives and MPs. It has provided the background to proposals for raising the minimum age for child marriage, amending Article 1041 of the Civil Code.

This proposal was approved by the House of Representatives in an emergency and with a majority of votes, but unanimously rejected by the Majlis Legal and Judicial Commission.

As the only fieldwork study these research findings were predicated on producing civil society advocacy and the need for parliament to amend the law. In the community level the research has raised a wave of public awareness leading to a serious civil society demand for a ban on child marriage and raising the age of marriage from 13 to 16 for girls and from 15 to 18 for boys.


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Related Articles:

The Nexus between the Temporary Marriage and Early Child Marriages

Feminization of Poverty-The Cause and Consequence of Early Childhood Marriages in Iran


Online shopping book link:

Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, English version, NOVA Publishing

An Echo of Silence: A Comprehensive Research Study on Early Child Marriage (ECM) in Iran (Social Issues, Justice and Status), Amazon store

An echo of silence: a comprehensive research study on early child marriage (ECM) in Iran / Kameel Ahmady, Princeton University Library

Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, Shirazeh Publishing

Echo of Silence, Kameel Ahmady, Online Bookstore

PDF Summary Link Farsi Version:

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Award ceremony at George Washington University: A Mini United Nations Convenes In Washington, D.C.

IKWRO are delighted to announce the nominees and winners of the True Honour Awards 2017, Kmaeel Ahmady for his work on FGM and ECM

Video and TV Interviews (in Farsi):

8th Milan Program, Marriage of Children

Manoto Network: Child Marriage

Interview with Didar News: An Investigation of the Phenomenon of Child Marriage through Culture and Tradition

IranWire: Children are the most important victims of temporary marriage

Media coverage (also in Farsi):

Kameel Ahmady—British-Iranian Anthropologist Arrested in Iran

Endangered scholars: Kameel Ahmady—British-Iranian academic Released in Iran

Scotsman: World needs to shout about scholars silenced by the state

Etemad online: 17% of marriages in the country are underage

Shahrvand Newspaper: Marriage in Childhood, Divorce in adolescence

IRNA: Child marriage, childhood dreams in the adult world

VOA: Childhood spouse in Iran has quadrupled with increased marriage loan

Shargh Newspaper: Most child marriage in Mashhad

Keyhan London: Fear of the Internet as the reason of young girls’ marriage in Iran!

Radio Frda: Increasing the age of marriage for girls and its legal barriers

BBC: World Girl’s Day; Interview with Kameel Ahmady about early marriage for girls in Iran

News Online: Bride Children, Groom Children, Divorced Adolescents / Research on Child Marriage / Khorasan at the top, Isfahan at the bottom

News Online: Most child marriages in Mashhad / 18 million mother-in-law families in Iran

Radiofarda: Early Marriage; Couples Going Home as a Child

Radiofarda: Anecdotes of Immature Brides

Radiofarda: Head of the Welfare Organization: Prevent child marriage

VOA: Warning over high divorce rates and thousands of widows in Iran

ISNA: 17% of marriages for girls under 18 years / 14.000 widows under 18 years in the country

Hrana: Hrana’s report on the convention of child marriage at the Anthropological Society of Tehran University

Bahar News: Early Child Marriage; House on the Water

Hrana: The legitimacy of early child marriage, a form of child abuse

Online News: One Million Children of Wives in Iran and the phenomenon of child molestation

IRNA: We need a comprehensive look at children’s laws

IRNA: Slaughter a child in the slavery of domestic slavery!

IRNA as a Researcher: 35% of Marriages in Khorasan Razavi are for Children

ISNA: “An Echo of Silence” A Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage in Iran

ISNA: Life Game

ISNA: At the age of 13, I was forced to marry with my cousin …

IRNA: The Tragedy of Social Researchers in Iran / Part I

IRNA: Corruption, Rent and Gambling are dragged to the Scientific Society / Part II

DW: There are 14,000 widows in Iran

DW: MP: We have to think of girls who want a husband

Al Arabia: 14,000 widows under 18 in Iran

IRNA: Why doesn’t the Spouse Child Prohibition Bill come to an end?

News: A 6-year-old girl is not a child / We have to think about girls seeking a husband

Shahrvand Newspaper: Trying to amend the law on temporary marriage

Hamshahri Newspaper: Little Girls Saying Goodbye to School

IranWire: Children are the most important victims of temporary marriage

BBC: 24% of Iranian marriages are teenage marriages

Awakening: ignorance that underlies child marriage

Aftab Yazd: Girls’ wages for wages

Entekar Newspaper: Child spouse, widow and prostitute

Aftab-e Yazd’s Report of a controversial clip in which the child is being promoted

Health News: Poverty, a key factor in early child marriage

Safe House: One Million Children spouse in Iran and the phenomenon of child miscarriage (temporary marriage)

Asr-e Iran: 14,000 widowed children under 18 years in the country / 17% girls of marriages in Iran under 18

Awakening: An Echo of Silence: Comprehensive Research on Early Child Marriage in Iran / Kameel Ahmady

Law Newspaper: In some provinces, we are faced with the purchase of childhood

Borna: Marrying a 6-month-old fetus in her mother’s womb!

[Economics: Most child marriage in Mashhad

Shirazeh Publication: Seminar Report on the Causes and Prevalence of Spousal Child Phenomenon

IBNA: Sharing the views of religious leaders to reducing the child marriage

IBNA: There is very little data on child marriage in Iran

Iranian Political Science Association: Spouse Child; Roots, Injuries, and Policymaking

Didar News: Report on Marriage and Divorce of Children in Iran / 14000 Widowed Children in Iran

Meidan: Marriage of girls under the age of 18; 17% of all marriages in the country

Didar News: The girl is the woman of the people!

Kayhan Novin: A social researcher warns of the presence of 14,000 widows in Iran

Imam Ali’s Population: An Echo of Silence: Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage

News Land: Temporary Marriage and Child Marriage are rape of children

Health News: Child Marriage are rape of children

Beautiful Isfahan: House on the water

Hana News: A house on the water

Anna News Agency: Marriage of children under the age of 13 is prohibited

Borna: Girls’ marriages for wages

Ana: Results of First Comprehensive Research on Early Marriage: Child Marriage; Divorce in Adolescence

Didar NEWS: Parliament raise child marriage age and pending to seal of Guardian Council

Fararo: Child marriage, Divorce in Adolescence

Ministry of Co-operation, Labor and Social Welfare: A Review of Child Poverty Prevention Strategies

Behdokht: Seminar on the Causes and Prevalence of Child Abuse

Supporters of Civil Society: Report of the Results of the First Comprehensive Survey on Early Child Marriage in Iran; Child Marriage; Divorce in Adolescence

Shahraara Online: Widowed children in second marriage are also not have the authority to select the second marriage

Un-Childhood: Hrana’s Report on the Conference on Child Marriage at the Anthropological Society of Tehran University

Ettelaat Newspaper: Immature Widows

Iran Global: Child marriage in Iran from the standpoint of statistics

Spadana News: 30% increase of Iranian child marriage within three years